Thursday, December 19, 2013

Time to Bring Eritrea in from the Cold – By Hank CohenAfrican Arguments | African Arguments

Afwerki2
Eritrean President Isaias Afewerki has stated that ‘Eritrea cannot fulfill its destiny without Ethiopia.’
After being part of Ethiopia for forty years, the people of Eritrea held a referendum in April 1993 and decided to establish an independent state.  The referendum took place in the aftermath of a thirty-year insurgency against two successive Ethiopian regimes waged by the Eritrean Peoples Liberation Front (EPLF). At the same time, an allied insurgent group, the Tigrean Peoples Liberation Front (TPLF), took over power in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa, after the military collapse of the Soviet-supported regime headed by President Mengistu Haile Mariam.
Between 1993 and 1998, the two “brother” governments of Eritrea and Ethiopia, headed by the EPLF and TPLF, enjoyed excellent relations.  They maintained a common economic system that allowed landlocked Ethiopia full access to the Eritrean Red Sea ports of Asab and Masawa, including control of their own handling facilities for the transit of cargo.
The relationship started to cool in 1997 when the Eritreans created their own currency, the Nakfa. They did this without arranging to establish a system of daily settlements for cross border trade between their currency and the Ethiopian Birrh.  This could have been done through a facility provided by the International Monetary Fund. Without such a facility in place, the Ethiopian Government announced that all cross border trade had to be settled in US Dollars.  This resulted in a financial setback for Eritrea because of its limited access to hard currencies.
In 1998, the Eritrean Government complained that Ethiopian government representatives, including police, were beginning to encroach on Eritrean territory near the border town of Badme in southwest Eritrea.  According to Eritrean sources, four of their police officers who went to Badme to investigate turned up dead.  Again, the Eritreans said that they had no choice but to retaliate with military force against the alleged Ethiopian encroachments and murder of their policemen.  The Ethiopian Government denied all of the Eritrean allegations about encroachments and the killing of Eritrean policemen, claiming that the Eritrean military attack was totally unjustified.
Instead of negotiations, the Eritrean action triggered a massive Ethiopian armed response, unleashing a major bilateral war that lasted two years, and that caused approximately 100,000 dead and wounded on both sides.
Under Algerian Government mediation, a cease-fire was accomplished in 2000. In view of the border as the ostensible main issue in contention, the Algerians established the Ethiopia-Eritrea Border Commission (EEBC) to arbitrate the exact boundary line. While the EEBC was doing its work, the long border remained heavily armed on both sides.
The results of the EEBC arbitration upheld Eritrea’s main claims on the border delineation.  The Ethiopian Government made a public statement agreeing to the arbitration result, but insisted that it would not proceed to delineate the final border settlement until they could have bilateral discussions with Eritrea. The Government of Eritrea declared that it was open to discussions without any preconditions, but insisted that Ethiopia first had to delineate the border pursuant to the arbitration decision.  This total stalemate in the bilateral relationship has continued until the present, with both governments holding to their inflexible positions.
Because of the stalemate, the border has remained heavily armed on both sides.  This situation has caused particular hardship to Eritrea. Because of the country’s small population, young men conscripted into the armed forces to patrol the long border have had to serve for indefinite periods without knowing when they would be demobilized and returned to their families. As a result, over the past decade thousands of young Eritrean have ‘illegally’ left their country to seek asylum in the other countries, including Ethiopia, Egypt, Israel, the Emirates and southern Europe.
In addition to the expensive armed camps on both sides of the border, the situation of ‘no peace—no war’ has resulted in a total stoppage of cross border trade, and the loss to Ethiopia of Eritrea’s convenient nearby ports for Ethiopia’s exports and imports.  Ethiopia’s only access to the ocean since the war began has been via the 900 mile antiquated railway from Addis Abeba to the port of the neighboring country of Djibouti at the entrance to the Indian Ocean from the Red Sea.  In addition to the long distance between Djibouti and Addis Abeba, port fees in Djibouti are excessively high.
To make matters worse, both Ethiopia and Eritrea have become ensnarled in the chaos of Somalia since that government collapsed in 1991. The rise of the Islamist group Al Shabab, with abundant assistance from al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula caused Ethiopia to send troops to Somalia at various points from 2006 to the present day. Between 2006 and 2010, the security crisis in Somalia has caused relations between Eritrea and the United States to deteriorate badly. In 2008, the George W. Bush Administration declared Eritrea to be a “state sponsor of terrorism”, thereby triggering US trade, investment, and travel sanctions against Eritrea and its leaders. The reason was the identification of Somali Islamist extremists attending a Somali political dialogue meeting in Eritrea. Indeed, this caused the US Government to become so enraged that the American Assistant Secretary of State for Africa expressed to desire to reopen the EEBC arbitration decision in order to favor the Ethiopian border claims. This request was not adopted.
The Obama administration accused the Eritrean Government of allowing the transit of arms to Al-Shabab – the reason for this  alleged support being that Eritrea wanted to help an enemy of Ethiopia, thereby putting pressure on its neighbour to implement the arbitration decision.
In 2009, Senior Etritrean officials met in Rome with the American Permanent Representative to the UN, Susan Rice, and the US Assistant Secretary of State for Africa, Ambassador Johnny Carson. The American delegation was apparently not satisfied with the Eritrean rebuttal of the allegations about their allowing the transit of arms to Shabab. There were also accusations of Eritrean support to insurgents opposing the Ethiopian regime from within. As a result, Ambassador Susan Rice introduced a resolution in the UN Security Council calling for sanctions against Eritrea.  The resolution, UNSC 1907, was enacted in a watered down version of the original harsh US draft, but nevertheless caused Eritrea to become something of an international pariah.  This situation continues.
However, as far as external support for Shabaab is concerned, all available intelligence indicates that Eritrea has not had any contact since 2009. Earlier intelligence reports, denied by Eritrea as fabricated, indicated that the country was facilitating the transfer of funds to Shabaab – nothing of that sort has been reported since 2009  by any source.  Those of us who know Eritrea well understand that the Eritrean leadership fears Islamic militancy as much as any other country in the Horn of Africa region.
In recent months, positive signals have been coming from both countries.  Eritrean President Isaias Afewerke has been quoted as saying that Eritrea cannot fulfill its destiny without Ethiopia. The Prime Minister of Ethiopia, Hailemariam Desalegn, has said that he is willing to go to Eritrea to engage in dialogue.  In short, the wartime tensions of 1998-2000 no longer have a logical basis for continuing to exist. Normalization of Ethiopian-Eritrean relations promises a win-win future for both nations.
In view of the absence of any intelligence, real or fabricated, linking Eritrea with Shabaab for over four years, the UN Security Council should terminate sanctions imposed in 2009 by UNSC resolution 1907.  Since European Union governments have maintained normal relations with Eritrea since the country’s independence, one of the European members of the UN Security Council should propose a resolution to end the sanctions. The US should agree to abstain rather than veto such a resolution.
To break the stalemate between Eritrea and Ethiopia over the implementation of the EEBC boundary decision, there needs to be a mutually face-saving solution. I propose that Ethiopia offer to accept a symbolic initial takeover by Eritrea of territory awarded by the EEBC, followed by the same day opening of dialogue with a totally open agenda.  This dialogue could have the benefit of a neutral mediator, or not, depending on the wishes of the two governments. Here again, one of the neutral Europeans should have the ability to inspire confidence in both sides.
A normalization of relations, following the end of UN sanctions against Eritrea, would have immediate benefits for both countries. A resumption of Ethiopian use of Eritrean ports would provide economic benefits to both countries with trade resuming in both directions. Both sides would also be able to demobilise the border with important cost savings.
Both countries, of course, continue to have important human rights issues.  Normalization of bilateral relations would make it easier for the US and the international community to encourage political and governance reforms.
Finally, the normalization of relations between the United States and Eritrea would open the door to military-to-military cooperation of the type that would enlist Eritrea in the war against Islamic terrorism in the Horn coming from across the Red Sea.
Yes, the time has come to bring Eritrea in from the cold.
Herman J. ‘Hank’ Cohen is Former Assistant Secretary of State for Africa.
If you enjoyed this post, please consider leaving a comment or sub

64 comments:

  1. For sure, this initiated the US Government to wind up so maddened that the American Assistant Secretary of State for Africa communicated to craving to revive the a knockout post mediation choice to support the Ethiopian fringe claims. This appeal was not received.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thank you for showing Interest in Watching US Open Live Streaming. Check your Mail For Streaming Link!!
      us open tennis live streaming
      us open live stream

      Delete
  2. Wholesale Sexy Lingerie,High Quality!Low Price! Wholesale Leggings,Plus Size Corsets,Wholesale Halloween Costumes From China Suppliers LingeriePark.Wholesale Only,No Retail!
    Wholesale Plus Size Corsets
    Lingerie Suppliers
    Lingerie China Suppliers
    LingeriePark
    Wholesale Sexy Lingerie

    ReplyDelete
  3. Great! Thanks for sharing the information. That is very helpful for increasing my knowledge in this field.
    happy wheels
    super mario bros
    pacman

    ReplyDelete

  4. I would like to say that this article really convinced me, you give me best information!
    Friv3|
    Y8 games

    ReplyDelete

  5. Great! Thanks for sharing the information. That is very helpful for increasing my knowledge in this
    Super smash flash 2|
    Super mario bros|
    Cooking games for girls

    ReplyDelete
  6. Thanks for sharing your info. I really appreciate your efforts and I will be waiting for your further write.
    Friv 4
    Friv 5
    Friv 100
    Happy Wheels

    ReplyDelete
  7. Do not know what to say, I liked your article and I hope you will have many entries or more.
    Friv 14|
    Kizi|
    Friv4school

    ReplyDelete
  8. When you see the stress in work, life, friv could well be a good site to try.
    Thanks you for sharing
    Friv Games, Friv Online, Friv.com, Friv

    ReplyDelete
  9. Thank you for giving posts and articles were very amazing. I really liked as a part of the article. With a nice and interesting topics.
    Friv 1000

    ReplyDelete
  10. Play free Friv games flash online games flash.
    Thanks you for sharing
    Friv Games | Friv Online

    ReplyDelete
  11. You need to kill time, you need entertainment. Refer to our website. hope you get the most comfort.
    Thanks you for sharing!
    Friv
    Friv Games
    Yepi 4
    Kizi 4

    ReplyDelete
  12. You need to kill time, you need entertainment. Refer to our website. hope you get the most comfort.
    Friv

    ReplyDelete
  13. you'd have time to look these kids active. Please visit our website and let us play the game interesting.
    Thanks for sharing !
    Friv 10
    Kizi 10
    Yepi 2

    ReplyDelete
  14. after hours of work tired, you need entertainment. Refer to our website. hope you get the most comfortable
    Kizi 1000

    ReplyDelete
  15. You need to kill time, you'd have time to look these kids active. Refer to our website. Hope you get the most comfort.
    Thanks for sharing !
    Friv 5
    Kizi 1
    Yepi 3

    ReplyDelete
  16. This is something special! never seen this before! thank you.
    Friv
    Kizi 4
    Friv Games

    ReplyDelete
  17. Play the Best Free Games! We've picked out the racing games, cooking games, candy crush, games shooting, fashion games, ...
    Thanks for sharing !
    Kizi 200
    Friv 1
    Y88
    Y9

    ReplyDelete
  18. Friv is big derectory flash games online free for kids. My site add new-best games from Friv, Kizi, Y8, Yepi... Visit and play now, free for fun at Friv.wf!
    friv 1000 | friv 2 | kizi friv | friv 3 | friv 2016 | friv 10000 | friv 2017

    ReplyDelete
  19. Game online a lot of people who love to help them relieve stress of the moment, such as TinyTanksandTinyPlanesorTiny Planes Beta is the fighting game with a pen or pencil, you have to destroy opponents before they kill you. Or Run 3 Unblocked and Hacked unblocked Gamesare skillful game controller for bears to dance to the goal without falling off a cliff. I wish you happy gaming!

    ReplyDelete
  20. I Discovered Many new things from your article. Thank you for this!
    Friv
    Friv

    ReplyDelete
  21. Please visit our website and play exciting games,thank you verry much
    Friv 2|
    Friv 1000|
    HappyWheels

    ReplyDelete
  22. invites you to play games for a chance to win cars Corolla Altis car


    Friv Games
    Kizi 100
    Games2Win
    Kizi 5

    ReplyDelete
  23. You want to relax after a stressful working hours. Refer to our website. hope you get the most comfort.
    Thanks for sharing !
    Friv 100
    Friv 8
    Friv 2

    ReplyDelete
  24. Great post I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this interesting and knowledgeable article.
    Watch tennis live stream
    Visit Here

    ReplyDelete
  25. I was working and suddenly I visits your site frequently and recommended it to me to read also. Age Of War 2
    Big Farm | Slitherio
    Tank Trouble | Happy Wheels
    Goodgeme Empire | Slither.io

    ReplyDelete
  26. You want to relax after a stressful working hours. Refer to our website. Hope you get the most comfort.
    Thanks for sharing !Y8 arcade

    ReplyDelete
  27. This blog is so nice to me. I will continue to come here again and again. Visit my link as well. Good luck
    obat aborsi
    cara menggugurkan kandungan

    ReplyDelete
  28. Facebook has become a part of my life, not only helped me to connect with you but also where I can share every moment in life. I really like the convenience that it brings
    facebook baixar , baixar facebook , baixar facebook gratis

    ReplyDelete
  29. The article gives me a lot of interesting information. I still often share life experiences with friends. And I enjoyed the convenience and attractiveness of free messaging app
    whatsapp baixar , baixar whatsapp , baixar whatsapp gratis

    ReplyDelete
  30. Life becomes more interesting and wonderful when you share your memorable moments with friends and family through unique photographs. You can create your own unique style impressed with image editing software.

    square quick , download square quick , square quick , square quick , square quick app

    ReplyDelete
  31. Thank you for your wonderful post. Keep up the good work.
    GGG | moto x3m 3 | limaxio | gold miner game | happy wheels games

    ReplyDelete
  32. We experience more than happy about that. You should also consider their finest game titles with our free currently to find the sense of exciting that brings.
    CookieClicker
    Cookie Clicker
    Cookie Clicker game
    Cookie Clicker online

    ReplyDelete
  33. Thanks for sharing your info. I really appreciate your efforts and I will be waiting for your further write.
    Happy Wheels | Five Nights at Freddy’s | Friv | Kizi4

    ReplyDelete
  34. You need to have time to take care of the active. It in fact was a amusement account it. Look advanced to far added agreeable from you.
    banana kong ,
    banana kong baixar ,
    baixar banana kong ,
    download banana kong ,
    banana kong

    ReplyDelete
  35. Life becomes more interesting and wonderful when you share your memorable moments with friends and family through unique photographs. You can create your own unique style impressed with image editing software. And after hours of work stress you can also

    tank trouble, tank trouble 2, tank trouble games, tank trouble

    ReplyDelete
  36. Mostly people have all the same things when they are writing academic task or any other writing, especially light music most people like during the writing.
    dream league soccer download , dream league soccer apk , download dream league soccer , dream league soccer

    ReplyDelete
  37. Thanks I have read your article, it is very interesting and exciting
    download go launcher, go launcher apk, go launcher , go launcher androi,

    ReplyDelete
  38. Life becomes more interesting and wonderful when you share your memorable moments with friends and family through unique photographs. You can create your own unique style impressed with image editing software. And after hours of work stress you can also
    dr driving, dr driving baixar ,download dr driving, dr driving

    ReplyDelete
  39. العاب بنات يحتوي موقعنا على تشكيلة من العاب تلبيس بنات متجددة باستمرار وكل مايتعلق بصنف العاب بنات تلبيس ومكياج وطبخ ومرحبا بكم في العاب تلبيس ...
    al3ab-banat01 العاب

    ReplyDelete
  40. Your pictures are so lovely !Keep for sharing. twizl games I managed to get the last Magnolia tree stamp from the Glitter Pot - wheely online Phew guess you thought I didn't have a card - game bloxorz then my browser decided to have a bit of hissy fit - duck life 4 The papers are a download from Nitwits - agar.io I brought the smaller Marianne poinsettia dies

    ReplyDelete
  41. I like your all post. You have done really good work. Thank you for the information you provide, it helped me a lot. I hope to have many more entries or so from you.
    lucky patcher l download lucky patcher l lucky patcher app l lucky patcher download l lucky patcher apk

    ReplyDelete
  42. Very interesting blog. Alot of blogs I see these days don't really provide anything that I'm interested in, but I'm most definately interested in this one.
    wings.io l wingsio l wings io l wingsio game l play wingsio

    ReplyDelete
  43. I think there are many people like and visit it regularly, including me.I actually appreciate your own position and I will be sure to come back here.
    baixar sonic dash l download sonic dash l sonic dash baixar l sonic dash game l sonic dash download

    ReplyDelete
  44. I’m glad you enjoyed it. Those are great habits! Thank you for sharing.
    Y8Y8Y8

    ReplyDelete
  45. You are always willing to lend a hand.
    Friv

    Yepi

    ReplyDelete
  46. Kizi 100 games - This is the best solution for having fun. Now play and feel! friv 4 school games is a great store for children's games. Where you can find the best friv games for school and free friv games for kids.

    ReplyDelete
  47. Everyone loves what you guys are up too. This sort of clever work and exposure! Keep up the terrific works guys I've you guys to my own blogroll
    kingo root android , kingo root , kingo root apk

    ReplyDelete
  48. Do not hope for a relationship is clearly not the most advanced weapon to protect my heart from damage. Since you can not know where, sometimes an ambiguous relationship even more painful goodbye.
    facebook entrar , entrar no facebook , entrar facebook , entrar facebook direto , entrar facebook agoraDo not hope for a relationship is clearly not the most advanced weapon to protect my heart from damage. Since you can not know where, sometimes an ambiguous relationship even more painful goodbye.
    facebook entrar , entrar no facebook , entrar facebook , entrar facebook direto , entrar facebook agora

    ReplyDelete
  49. E-mail with many attractive features and convenience are the choice of most people around the world open. And I want to share to everyone a free webmail services extremely great.
    outlook entrar , entrar no outlook , entrar outlook , outlook entrar

    ReplyDelete
  50. Thanks for the sharing of such information we will pass it on to our readers.
    Friv.com
    Friv
    Friv Online

    ReplyDelete
  51. Our website has many interesting games. Please share this with your friends and have fun.
    Friv 2/
    Kizi 1000

    ReplyDelete
  52. We are really grateful for your blog post. You will find a lot of approaches after visiting your post. Great work.

    Friv2
    Friv7
    Friv8
    Friv9
    Friv20
    Friv100
    Friv100
    Friv10000

    ReplyDelete
  53. Thank you for giving posts and articles were very amazing. I really liked as a part of the article. With a nice and interesting topics. Thanks for posting.
    I like play games Y8

    ReplyDelete
  54. Thank you for your interest ! Check out my site! you can play
    Kizi 100/
    Friv 2017/
    Kizi 2017

    ReplyDelete
  55. You need entertainment. Refer to our website. hope you get the most comfortable
    Friv 5
    Kizi 2
    Kizi 10
    Kizi 100
    Friv 100

    ReplyDelete
  56. Welcome, your blog is great. It's very interesting and meaningful
    Kizi 1
    Kizi
    Gahe

    ReplyDelete